Table 1

Anthropometric data and responses of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide

CTRL
(n = 9)GCK-diabetes
(n = 9)HNF1A-diabetes
(n = 10)PANOVA
N (females)9 (5)9 (7)10 (5)0.432
Age (years)41 ± 543 ± 531 ± 30.119
BMI (kg/m2)24 ± 124 ± 224 ± 10.934
HbA1c (%)5.3 ± 0.1§6.7 ± 0.2*7.0 ± 0.3*<0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)34 ± 1§50 ± 2*53 ± 3*<0.001
II0–30 min119 ± 17§95 ± 24§19 ± 5*0.001
HOMA-IR1.8 ± 0.13.6 ± 1.01.9 ± 0.20.066
Matsuda index17 ± 211 ± 2§21 ± 20.003
Fasting PG (mmol/L)5.1 ± 0.2§7.3 ± 0.3*§8.4 ± 0.8*<0.001
Peak PG (mmol/L)
 OGTT8.6 ± 0.4§13.4 ± 0.6*17.0 ± 1.5*<0.001
 IIGI8.7 ± 0.4§13.9 ± 0.6*§17.8 ± 1.7*<0.001
 Pt test0.4100.0080.059
Glucose, tAUC (min ⋅ mmol/L)
 OGTT1,351 ± 21§2,139 ± 59*§3,042 ± 302*<0.001
 IIGI1,376 ± 26§2,204 ± 65*§3,154 ± 311*<0.001
 Pt test0.7620.7010.651
Insulin, baseline (pmol/L)
 OGTT55 ± 3§75 ± 17§37 ± 5*0.016
 IIGI55 ± 7§68 ± 15§36 ± 6*0.060
 Pt test0.9830.1490.928
Insulin, peak values (pmol/L)
 OGTT417 ± 52§557 ± 100§137 ± 20*<0.001
 IIGI187 ± 20§192 ± 29§69 ± 9*<0.001
 Pt test<0.0010.0010.005
Insulin, tAUC (min ⋅ nmol/L)
 OGTT38 ± 5§50 ± 10§14 ± 1*<0.001
 IIGI19 ± 3§29 ± 6§11 ± 1*0.033
 Pt test0.0020.0030.040
C-peptide, baseline (pmol/L)
 OGTT437 ± 31474 ± 88349 ± 180.342
 IIGI410 ± 34458 ± 74336 ± 240.339
 Pt test0.2920.5110.558
C-peptide, peak values (pmol/L)
 OGTT1,805 ± 148§1,976 ± 255§865 ± 94*<0.001
 IIGI1,003 ± 91§1,214 ± 110§586 ± 59*0.008
 Pt test<0.001<0.0010.013
C-peptide, tAUC (min ⋅ nmol/L)
 OGTT239 ± 21§276 ± 36§142 ± 11*0.005
 IIGI152 ± 16§202 ± 25§114 ± 9*0.016
 Pt test<0.0010.0010.016
ISR, baseline (pmol/L)
 OGTT1 ± 02 ± 01 ± 00.373
 IIGI1 ± 02 ± 01 ± 00.300
 Pt test0.3210.6380.511
ISR, peak values (pmol/L)
 OGTT11 ± 1§11 ± 1§4 ± 1*<0.001
 IIGI5 ± 1§6 ± 1§3 ± 0*<0.001
 Pt test<0.001<0.0010.025
ISR, tAUC (min ⋅ nmol/L)
 OGTT797 ± 83§958 ± 105§501 ± 48*0.001
 IIGI496 ± 55684 ± 71§397 ± 280.006
 Pt test<0.001<0.0010.028
  • Data are means ± SEM unless otherwise indicated. II0–30 min, insulinogenic index0–30 min; tAUC, total area under the curve. P values are derived from two-tailed t tests for variation within the group and repeated-measurement ANOVA for variations between the groups.

  • P value is derived from a χ2 test for sex difference.

  • * Significant difference (P < 0.05) from the CTRL group in the observations between the groups (post hoc analysis).

  • Significant difference (P < 0.05) from the GCK-diabetes group in the observations between the groups (post hoc analysis).

  • § Significant difference (P < 0.05) from the HNF1A-diabetes group in the observations between the groups (post hoc analysis).