Table 2

Responses of glucagon, GIP, GLP-1, and acetaminophen

CTRL
(n = 9)GCK-diabetes
(n = 9)HNF1A-diabetes
(n = 10)PANOVA
Glucagon, baseline (pmol/L)
 OGTT8 ± 18 ± 17 ± 20.784
 IIGI8 ± 27 ± 17 ± 10.735
 Pt test0.8420.5630.545
Glucagon, ΔAUC0–240 min (min ⋅ nmol/L)
 OGTT−517 ± 193−750 ± 133−781 ± 2570.759
 IIGI−850 ± 280−662 ± 152−475 ± 1220.397
 Pt test0.3330.6400.961
Glucagon, ΔAUC0–60 min (min ⋅ nmol/L)
 OGTT−121 ± 46−142 ± 3646 ± 33*0.009
 IIGI−190 ± 55−132 ± 34−83 ± 200.150
 Pt test0.3440.8560.005
GIP, baseline (pmol/L)
 OGTT11.1 ± 2.48.8 ± 2.68.9 ± 1.50.215
 IIGI9.1 ± 1.77.2 ± 1.57.5 ± 0.90.316
 Pt test0.5160.3900.102
GIP, peak values (pmol/L)
 OGTT48.8 ± 6.359.1 ± 8.850.2 ± 5.50.984
 IIGI15.7 ± 2.18.6 ± 1.67.7 ± 0.90.176
 Pt test<0.001<0.001<0.001
GIP, tAUC (min ⋅ nmol/L)
 OGTT5.8 ± 0.66.7 ± 1.05.0 ± 0.40.366
 IIGI2.0 ± 0.41.7 ± 0.31.8 ± 0.20.670
 Pt test<0.001<0.001<0.001
GLP-1, baseline (pmol/L)
 OGTT9.4 ± 0.47.4 ± 1.19.9 ± 1.60.410
 IIGI9.1 ± 0.99.4 ± 0.98.6 ± 0.90.804
 Pt test0.7780.0700.424
GLP-1, peak values (pmol/L)
 OGTT24.0 ± 2.424.6 ± 3.127.3 ± 4.70.849
 IIGI11.4 ± 1.412.8 ± 4.49.5 ± 1.30.513
 Pt test<0.0010.0600.003
GLP-1, tAUC (min ⋅ nmol/L)
 OGTT3.3 ± 0.33.1 ± 0.43.1 ± 0.40.947
 IIGI2.1 ± 0.22.4 ± 0.41.9 ± 0.10.423
 Pt test0.0020.0420.005
Acetaminophen, OGTT
 Peak values (mmol/L)0.122 ± 0.0110.148 ± 0.0050.138 ± 0.0060.102
 Time to peak values (min)82 ± 983 ± 667 ± 80.184
 iAUC (min ⋅ mmol/L)18 ± 221 ± 119 ± 10.109
  • Data are means ± SEM. P values are derived from two-tailed t tests for variation within the group and repeated-measurement ANOVA for variations between the groups. Plasma glucagon responses are calculated as baseline-subtracted area under the curve (ΔAUC). iAUC, incremental area under the curve; tAUC, total area under the curve.

  • * Significant differences (P < 0.05) from the CTRL and GCK-diabetes groups in the observations between the groups (post hoc analysis).