Table 1

List of the known metformin pharmacokinetic genes and select pharmacodynamic genes for which there are associations with a clinical response of metformin

GeneNoteSummary of effectsReferences
SLC22A1OCT1Decreased function alleles linked to reduction in metformin effect on initial A1C and lipid responses; incidence of diabetes18, 40, 41, 5256
SLC22A2OCT2No associations with clinical outcomes, only changes in metformin PK reported
SLC22A3OCT3No associations with clinical outcomes, only changes in metformin PK reported
SLC47A1MATE1Increased metformin response to A1C; incidence of diabetes18, 42, 52
SLC47A2MATE2Poorer response to metformin; changes in A1C42, 43
SRRSerine racemaseAssociated with changes in FPG, PPG, and CHO57
ATMSerine/threonine kinase; SNP in large LD block with 6 other genesMetformin treatment success by A1C2931
LKB/STK11AMPK upstream kinaseDecrease in ovulation in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome on metformin; incidence of diabetes18, 58
PRKAA1, PRKAA2, PRKAB2AMPK subunitsIncidence of diabetes18
ABCC8-KCNJ11Subunit of β-cell potassium channelIncidence of diabetes18
  • CHO, cholesterol; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; LD, linkage disequilibrium; PK, pharmacokinetics; PPG, postprandial plasma glucose.