Table 2

Unadjusted and stepwise adjusted associations between measures of cardiac autonomic function and MFR

Model 1
unadjustedModel 2
adjusted for ageModel 3
adjusted for age and heart rateModel 4
adjusted for age, heart rate, and other risk factors**Model 5
adjusted as model 4 + physical activity and medication***
123I-MIBG imaging (n = 74)
  Late heart-to-mediastinum ratio0.390.00040.380.00050.320.00270.
HRV measures (n = 84)
Time and frequency domains*
 SDNN intervals (ms)0.340.00060.320.0010.
 RMSSD (ms)0.330.00090.300.0020.
 LF power (ms2)0.340.00070.310.0010.
 HF power (ms2)0.290.0040.
 LF/HF (ratio)0.100.320.
 Total power (ms2)0.320.0010.300.0020.
 30-to-15 ratio (response to standing, n = 83)0.300.0010.270.0040.250.040.300.01
 E-to-I ratio (deep breathing, n = 84)0.300.0020.260.0060.
 Valsalva test ratio (n = 60)−0.010.92−0.0020.99
  • *Log2 transformed for analyses.

  • **Not included in adjustment for the CARTs. The β-estimates represent standardized effect. Other risk factors included sex, 24-h systolic blood pressure, BMI, HbA1c, UACR (UAER in control subjects), and smoking.

  • ***Treatment with β-blockers, amlodipine, tramadol, tricyclic antidepressants, or chlorpromazine.