Table 2

Age-related changes in the cardiovascular system

Heart
 Slowing kinetics of diastolic filling
 Left ventricular wall thickening
 Left atrial enlargement
 Augmentation in the atrial contribution to diastolic
 ventricular filling
 Decreased cardiovascular reserve function
 Increased risk for arrhythmia
 Altered regulation of cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis
Arterial system
 Diffuse intimal thickening
 Stiffening of the aorta and carotid arteries
 Endothelial dysfunction