Table 1

Features of the DS-PNDM cohort

PatientSexEthnicityMaternal age at birth (years)Patient current ageBirth weight z scoreaAge at diabetes diagnosisTreatmentHbA1c, % (mmol/L)bAutoantibodies testedAutoantibody statusDiabetes duration at antibody testingT1D-GRS (centile of T1D)cHLA DR genotypedOther conditions
1MaleCaucasianND23 years−0.797 weeksInsulin9.5 (80)NDNDNA0.37 (0.1)DRB1*15/XHypothyroidism, ASD
2FemaleHispanicND14 years−3.991 weekInsulin8.1 (65)NDNDNA0.70 (53.5)DR4/DR4Hypothyroidism, hearing and vision problems
3MaleCaucasian331 years−1.022 daysInsulinNDGADA, IA-2A, ZnT8ANegative1 week0.69 (48.2)DR3/DR3Tetralogy of Fallot, macroglossia
4MaleCaucasianND28 yearsND3 monthsInsulin8.5 (69)GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8AGADA positive10 years0.52 (2.5)X/XSeizures
5MaleArabic371 yearsND4 monthsInsulin8.8 (73)GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8AGADA positive4 months0.66 (33.9)DR3/DR3
6MaleHispanic409 months−2.652 weeksInsulin5.7 (39)GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8ANegative2 months0.64 (25.4)DR4/XSubclinical hypothyroidism, macroglossia, cardiac malformation
7MaleMixed (East Asian/
Caucasian)4320 years0.803 daysInsulin8.8 (73)GADAGADA positive8 years0.63 (20.6)DR3/XHypothyroidism, celiac disease exocrine insufficiency
8MaleArabicND9 years−1.238 weeksInsulin9.3 (78)GADA, IA-2AGADA positive5 years0.37 (0.1)DRB1*15/XMacroglossia
9FemaleTurkishND15 yearsND3 weeksInsulin8.1 (65)GADA, IA-2ANegative1 day0.61 (14.3)DR3/XHypothyroidism
10FemaleHispanicNDDied aged 7 months−3.303 daysInsulin6.6 (49)NDNDNA0.49 (0.9)DR4/DRB1*15
11MaleCaucasian356 years−0.841 dayInsulin6.6 (49)GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8ANegative5 months0.48 (0.8)DR3/DRB1*15Transient hypothyroidism, VSD
12MaleCaucasianND17 years0.1918 daysInsulin9.8 (84)NDNDND0.69 (48.2)DR4/XSeizures, hypothyroidism, frequent infections (low IgM), hepatic abscess
13MaleCaucasianND1 year−1.85BirthInsulin7.0 (53)GADA, ZnT8ANegativeND0.68 (44.5)DR4/DR4Hyperthyroidism, bowel obstruction, speech and vision problems
  • ASD, atrial septal defect; NA, not applicable; ND, no data; VSD, ventral septal defect.

  • az score adjusted for sex and gestational age.

  • bLatest HbA1c reported by clinician.

  • cT1D-GRS based on top 10 risk alleles; centile of T1D refers to the centile of the T1D control population that this score corresponds with.

  • dX denotes any HLA DR haplotype other than DR3, DR4, or DRB1*15.