Table 2

Comparison of DS-PNDM with non-DS PNDM and autoimmune non-DS PNDM

CharacteristicDS-PNDM (n = 13)Non-DS PNDM (n = 458)Autoimmune non-DS PNDM (n = 40)
Age at diabetes diagnosis (weeks)2.3 (0.4, 7.5)7 (3, 12)4 (1, 13.5)
Female sex23% (3 of 13)43% (197 of 458)12.5% (5 of 40)*
Birth weight z score−1.23 (−2.65, −0.84) [n = 10]−1.74 (−2.55, −0.82) [n = 378]−0.39 (−1.06, 0.29) [n = 30]
Positive for ≥1 autoantibodies§4 of 9 (44%)21 of 293 (7%)||13 of 28 (46%)
T1D-GRS0.61 (0.49, 0.66)0.55 (0.51, 0.61)0.57 (0.52, 0.62)
  • T1D-GRS: centiles based on control subjects with T1D. Age at diabetes diagnosis, birth weight z score, and T1D-GRS are given as median (interquartile range). Other than where indicated, data were similar for all cohorts (P > 0.1).

  • *Low due to males with IPEX (immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked) syndrome (n = 25/40).

  • †Adjusted for sex and gestational age.

  • ‡DS-PNDM vs. autoimmune non-DS PNDM, P = 0.02.

  • §One or more positive titer for GADA, IA-2A, or ZnT8A.

  • ||DS-PNDM vs. non-DS PNDM, P = 0.006.