Table 2

Metabolic phenotypes and clamp-derived measures of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity at baseline by treatment group

Glargine followed by metforminMetformin alone
AdultYouthAdultYouth
N = 67N = 44N = 65N = 47P value
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)6.1 ± 0.56.0 ± 0.96.1 ± 0.66.1 ± 1.10.311
Fasting C-peptide (nmol/L)1.242 ± 0.4711.627 ± 0.5521.206 ± 0.4301.820 ± 0.581<0.001
Fasting insulin (pmol/L)109.2 [40.2, 296.8]211.1 [54.8, 813.5]102.9 [36.8, 287.8]247.4 [74.1, 825.4]<0.001
Steady-state (second-phase) C-peptide response (nmol/L)4.0 [1.9, 8.4]5.2 [2.4, 11.2]3.9 [2.0, 7.6]5.1 [2.3, 11.2]<0.001
ACPRmax (nmol/L)4.8 [1.8, 12.5]7.3 [3.3, 16.2]4.8 [2.0, 11.7]8.1 [3.4, 9.3]<0.001
ACPRg (nmol/L)1.7 [1.0, 3.2]2.4 [0.9, 6.4]1.8 [1.0, 3.2]2.3 [0.8, 6.4]<0.001
Glucose disposal rate (M; mmol/kg/min)0.021 ± 0.0100.025 ± 0.0130.022 ± 0.0090.023 ± 0.0100.209
M/I (mmol/kg/min per pmol/L)2.8 [0.7, 12.1]1.6 [0.3, 7.4]3.3 [0.8, 13.1]1.5 [0.4, 6.8]<0.001
Fasting C-peptide/fasting insulin (×10 nmol/pmol)1.06 [0.62, 1.81]0.73 [0.29, 1.87]1.10 [0.59, 2.06]0.70 [0.28, 1.77]<0.001
  • Data are mean ± SD or geometric mean [95% CI]. P values for nonnormally distributed data based on log-transformed values. P value for ANOVA Type III F test.