Table 1

Characteristics of DPN case and control subjects

Baseline characteristicDiscovery set (ACCORD)Validation set (BARI 2D)
DPN case subjects
(n = 4,384)DPN control subjects
(n = 784)P valueDPN case subjects
(n = 791)DPN control subjects
(n = 158)P value
Female1,538 (35.1)289 (36.9)0.34204 (25.8)51 (32.3)0.09
Age (years)63.2 ± 6.561.6 ± 6.4<0.000163.33 ± 8.4762.09 ± 9.290.10
T2D duration (years)10.9 ± 7.59.1 ± 6.9<0.000110.5 ± 8.389.06 ± 8.710.05
BMI (kg/m2)33.2 ± 5.231.9 ± 4.8<0.000131.8 ± 5.4132.33 ± 5.970.27
Waist circumference (cm)110.0 ± 12.9105.3 ± 12.0<0.0001108.99 ± 13.08108.42 ± 13.970.62
Height (cm)171.7 ± 9.5170.0 ± 9.4<0.0001NANANA
HbA1c (%)8.22 ± 0.938.11 ± 0.900.027.54 ± 1.547.66 ± 1.630.40
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)9.93 ± 2.829.75 ± 2.760.09NANANA
SBP (mmHg)135.2 ± 16.7134.7 ± 16.40.42131.65 ± 20.6128.75 ± 16.320.05
DBP (mmHg)74.1 ± 10.475.0 ± 10.70.0373.82 ± 11.9273.54 ± 11.220.78
LDL (mmol/L)2.67 ± 0.842.68 ± 0.830.522.43 ± 0.832.59 ± 0.850.03
HDL (mmol/L)1.04 ± 0.271.06 ± 0.290.00470.95 ± 0.230.98 ± 0.230.13
 Women1.16 ± 0.291.22 ± 0.290.00091.06 ± 0.241.02 ± 0.220.19
 Men0.97 ± 0.230.98 ± 0.230.540.91 ± 0.210.96 ± 0.240.02
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.74 ± 1.054.76 ± 1.040.334.35 ± 1.054.56 ± 1.160.03
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.95 (1.37–2.81)1.91 (1.29–2.76)0.141.76 (1.24–2.58)1.90 (1.28–2.7)0.46
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)87.8 ± 21.790.4 ± 20.40.0016NANANA
UACR (mg/mmol)1.4 (0.7–4.2)1.1 (0.6–2.8)<0.0001NANANA
Previous CV event*1,556 (35.5)264 (33.7)0.33318 (40.2)69 (43.7)0.42
Report of retinopathy439 (11.3)40 (5.6)<0.0001NANANA
Current smoker496 (11.3)84 (10.7)0.863 (8)19 (12.1)0.09
Previous smoker2,194 (57.0)390 (56.2)0.8456 (57.8)88 (56.1)0.69
Insulin therapy1,598 (36.5)220 (28.1)<0.0001212 (26.8)27 (17.1)0.01
ACCORD Glycemia trial
 Standard2,227 (50.8)371 (47.3)0.07
 Intensive2,157 (49.2)413 (52.7)
ACCORD BP trial1,862 (42.5)361 (46.1)0.06
 Standard926 (21.1)182 (23.2)0.81
 Intensive936 (21.4)179 (22.8)
ACCORD Lipid trial2,522 (57.5)423 (54.0)0.06
 Fibrate1,294 (29.5)219 (27.9)0.86
 Placebo1,228 (28.0)204 (26.0)
BARI 2D CV intervention
 Medical therapy398 (50.3)67 (42.4)0.07
 Early revascularization393 (49.7)91 (57.6)
BARI 2D diabetic therapy
 Insulin provision394 (49.8)71 (44.9)0.26
 Insulin sensitization397 (50.2)87 (55.1)
  • Except where noted, data are means ± SD for continuous variables and counts (%) for categorical data. BP, blood pressure; CV, cardiovascular; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; NA, not available; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

  • †Median (interquartile range). *Prior CV event: In ACCORD, this includes secondary prevention status or history of myocardial infarction, stroke, angina, and/or ischemic changes (electrocardiogram) on graded exercise tolerance test or positive imaging, coronary revascularization procedures, or other revascularization procedures at baseline; in BARI 2D, this includes history of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, or transient ischemic attack.