Table 2

Metabolic parameters of nondiabetic and diabetic ApoE−/− mice treated with vehicle (SO) or dh404 at conclusion of 18-week study

ND+SO (n = 9)ND+dh-20 (n = 8)D+SO (n = 5)D+dh-3 (n = 7)D+dh-10 (n = 8)D+dh-20 (n = 9)
HbA1c, % 4.3 ± 0.13.5 ± 0.113.2 ± 1.010.4 ± 1.910.6 ± 1.010.5 ± 1.4
HbA1c, mol/mol23 ± 1.115 ± 1.1121 ± 10.9***90 ± 20.8***92 ± 10.9***91 ± 15.3***
Blood glucose, mmol/L8.9 ± 0.78.2 ± 0.422.8 ± 2.0***20.7 ± 2.9***23.9 ± 1.6***21.7 ± 2.6***
Total cholesterol, mmol/L10.5 ± 0.614.0 ± 1.421.9 ± 1.3***14.4 ± 1.5##15.2 ± 1.4##17.6 ± 1.6**,#
Triglycerides, mmol/L1.9 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.37.3 ± 1.0***4.4 ± 0.8*,#4.0 ± 0.4*,#5.3 ± 0.9**
HDL, mmol/L2.2 ± 0.13.1 ± 0.3*4.3 ± 0.3***2.7 ± 0.3##3.1 ± 0.3*,#3.2 ± 0.3*,#
LDL, mmol/L7.5 ± 0.410.4 ± 1.014.4 ± 0.9***9.8 ± 1.1#10.3 ± 1.112.0 ± 1.1**
Plasma AST, units/L155 ± 34103 ± 17201 ± 82153 ± 42233 ± 74187 ± 72
Plasma ALT, units/L43 ± 829 ± 1656 ± 1750 ± 20100 ± 3951 ± 33
Water intake, mL/24 h4.1 ± 0.40.7 ± 0.224.0 ± 1.6***17.1 ± 3.0***19.4 ± 2.2***16.6 ± 3.9***
Food intake, g/24 h2.4 ± 0.23.2 ± 0.25.2 ± 0.4***3.8 ± 0.3*4.4 ± 0.3***4.9 ± 0.5***
Urinary output, mL/24 h1.0 ± 0.21.9 ± 0.222.5 ± 2.0***13.6 ± 2.7**14.7 ± 2.3**16.7 ± 4.1***
  • Data are presented as mean ± SEM.

  • D, diabetic; dh-3, -10, and -20, dh404 at 3, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day; ND, nondiabetic.

  • *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 vs. ND+SO; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01 vs. D+SO.