Table 1

Baseline patient characteristics according to sex-stratified tertiles of cholesterol efflux capacity (n = 405)

VariableTertiles of sex-stratified HDL CEC (%)P value for trend
T1 (low tertile)T2 (middle tertile)T3 (high tertile)
HDL CEC (%)5.9 (5.4–6.4)7.2 (6.8–8.0)9.0 (8.1–10.0)
General characteristics
 Age (years)49.8 (41.5–58.0)51.1 (40.4–58.9)55.5 (45–61.5)0.003
 Male sex (%)56.355.160.00.981
Smoking status (%)
 Never smoker3732.431.30.572
 Former smoker40.744.945.50.693
 Current smoker22.222.122.40.998
Alcohol consumption (%)0.687
 None46.75044
 >4 units/day0.70.72.2
 1–3 units/day11.114.713.4
 2–7 units/week23.722.125.4
 1–4 units/month17.81113.4
Body composition
 BMI (kg/m2)26.1 (23.5–29.2)25.4 (23.1–27.6)24.2 (22.6–26.6)0.002
 Waist circumference (cm)98.6 ± 13.795.6 ± 12.692.4 ± 12.4<0.001
Transplant history
 Time since renal transplantation (years)5.8 (2.1–9.2)5.3 (2.4–10.6)8.3 (4.1–13.8)0.001
 Deceased donor (%)84.484.689.60.383
 Donor age (years)41 (24–52)41 (23–52)32 (23–50)0.363
 Dialysis duration (months)26 (13–51)27.5 (12.3–45)30 (13.8–52.3)0.363
Renal allograft function
 Serum creatinine (µmol/L)150 (121–183)133 (112–157)126 (106–148)<0.001
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)42.3 ± 15.349.4 ± 15.849.9 ± 15.5<0.001
 Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio15.4 (5.2–50.7)8.0 (3.4–43.2)13.7 (3.8–68.6)0.056
Inflammatory markers
 hs-CRP2.1 (0.9–4.6)1.8 (0.7–4.3)1.7 (0.7–3.5)0.097
Blood pressure
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)90 ± 1089 ± 990 ± 100.454
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)149 (135–166)147 (132–160)152 (134–167)0.204
Glucose homeostasis
 Fasted plasma glucose (mmol/L)4.5 (4.1–4.9)4.5 (4.1–4.9)4.4 (4.0–4.8)0.305
 Plasma insulin (µmol/L)11.5 (8.6–14.8)10.9 (7.9–15.8)9.0 (6.3–11.7)<0.001
 HbA1c (%)6.4 (5.8–6.7)6.2 (5.7–6.6)6.1 (5.6–6.6)0.148
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)46 (40–50)44 (39–49)43 (38–49)0.148
 Family history of diabetes: parent or sibling with diabetes (%)13.38.89.70.466
Lipids and lipoproteins
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.4 ± 0.95.71 ± 1.255.82 ± 0.90.004
 LDL-C (mmol/L)3.6 (2.9–4.1)3.5 (3.0–4.2)3.5 (3.1–4.1)0.824
 HDL-C (mmol/L)0.86 (0.71–0.99)1.1 (0.96–1.2)1.4 (1.2–1.5)<0.001
 ApoA-I1.3 (1.2–1.5)1.6 (1.4–1.7)1.8 (1.6–2.0)<0.001
 ApoB1.1 ± 0.21.1 ± 0.21.0 ± 0.20.006
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)2.1 (1.6–2.8)2.0 (1.4–2.7)1.6 (1.2–2.1)<0.001
Medication use
 Antihypertensives (%)92.680.982.1<0.001
 Statins (%)48.148.551.50.377
 Proliferation inhibitor (%)80.775.770.10.129
 Calcineurin inhibitor (%)77.883.873.90.134
 Tacrolimus (%)15.614.08.20.161
 Cyclosporine (%)62.269.164.90.485
 Prednisolone (mg/24 h)10 (8.8–10)10 (8.8–10)10 (7.5–10)0.015
  • Continuous data with a skewed distribution are given as median (interquartile range), and differences were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Normally distributed continuous data are presented as mean ± SD, and differences were tested using one-way ANOVA. Categorical data are given as %, and differences were analyzed by χ2 test.