Table 1

Baseline characteristics of DPP participants according to randomization group among those included in the present analysis

Total (n = 2,658)PBO (n = 888)MET (n = 880)ILS (n = 890)P*
Demographics
 Age, years50.7 ± 10.750.6 ± 10.450.9 ± 10.350.6 ± 11.40.93
 Female sex1,789 (67.3)607 (68.4)583 (66.3)599 (67.3)0.641
 Race/ethnicity
  White1,476 (55.5)490 (55.2)507 (57.6)479 (53.8)0.298
  African American537 (20.2)186 (20.9)178 (20.2)173 (19.4)
  Hispanic451 (17.0)147 (16.6)143 (16.3)161 (18.1)
  Other194 (7.3)65 (7.3)52 (5.9)77 (8.7)
 Current smoker192 (7.2)69 (7.8)60 (6.8)63 (7.1)0.726
 Hyperlipidemia136 (5.1)50 (5.6)47 (5.3)39 (4.4)0.486
 On lipid-lowering medication126 (4.7)45 (5.1)45 (5.1)36 (4.0)0.455
 Hypertension427 (16.1)139 (15.7)140 (15.9)148 (16.6)0.845
 SBP, mmHg123.7 ± 14.7123.5 ± 14.4124.2 ± 15.0123.5 ± 14.60.961
 DBP, mmHg78.3 ± 9.378.0 ± 9.278.3 ± 9.578.5 ± 9.10.227
Anthropometrics and lifestyle
 BMI, kg/m234.1 ± 6.634.3 ± 6.734.0 ± 6.634.0 ± 6.60.312
 Waist circumference, cm105.3 ± 14.5105.5 ± 14.3105.0 ± 14.4105.4 ± 14.80.823
 AHEI-2010, units46.4 ± 10.145.9 ± 10.244.9 ± 9.948.6 ± 9.90.001
 MET h/week#9.5 (3.8, 20.3)9.8 (4.0, 21.1)9.9 (3.8, 21.2)9.1 (3.8, 18.1)0.180
Biochemical
 Fasting glucose, mmol/L5.93 ± 0.455.95 ± 0.475.92 ± 0.465.92 ± 0.440.117
 HOMA-IR, units#6.2 (4.3, 9.0)6.2 (4.2, 8.8)6.2 (4.3, 9.1)6.2 (4.3, 9.1)0.938
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.27 ± 0.945.26 ± 0.945.26 ± 0.935.28 ± 0.950.638
 LDLc, mmol/L3.23 ± 0.853.22 ± 0.863.23 ± 0.843.24 ± 0.850.692
 HDLc, mmol/L#1.14 (0.96, 1.35)1.11 (0.96, 1.32)1.14 (0.98,1.32)1.14 (0.96, 1.35)0.022
 TG, mmol/L#1.61 (1.12, 2.31)1.67 (1.18, 2.37)1.58 (1.11, 2.25)1.57 (1.09, 2.27)0.005
 CRP, mg/dL#0.38 (0.17, 0.77)0.38 (0.17, 0.80)0.36 (0.17, 0.74)0.39 (0.18, 0.76)0.472
 tPA, ng/mL#11.0 (8.8, 13.4)10.9 (8.8, 13.5)10.9 (8.7, 13.2)11.2 (8.7, 13.5)0.902
 Fibrinogen, μmol/L11.3 ± 2.511.4 ± 2.611.2 ± 2.511.3 ± 2.50.840
Genetics: genetic risk score, units172 ± 9172 ± 9172 ± 9173 ± 90.222
  • Values are given as the mean ± SD or median (25th, 75th percentile) except for qualitative variables expressed as n (%). HOMA-IR, HOMA of insulin resistance.

  • * P values obtained by

  • # Kruskall-Wallis, ANOVA, and χ2 tests with 2 df as appropriate.