Table 1

The median of the first FPIR and ΔFPIR over time according to different genotypes in 195 children with multiple (at least two) biochemical autoantibodies during follow-up

ΔFPIR (mU/L/year)
SNP (n, % of total within the gene)Baseline FPIR (mU/L), median (95% CI)Age at first IVGTT (years), median (IQR)Time between last and first IVGTT (years), median (range)Median (95% CI)nProgressors, n (%)
PTPN22 (193)49.2 (44.6, 53.9)3.5 (2.3, 5.5)3.1 (0.8–14.5)−3.3 (−4.5, −1.5)151128 (66)
 AA (12, 6)50.5 (32.2, 79.6)2.4 (2.1, 4.7)3.2 (1.1–10.0)−0.7 (−5.9, 2.0)108 (67)
 AG (50, 26)46.8 (41.2, 53.9)2.9 (2.0, 5.0)3.0 (0.8–8.5)−4.0 (−5.6, −1.1)4237 (74)
GG (131, 68)51.0 (44.1, 56.1)3.6 (2.4, 5.5)3.1 (1.0–14.5)−3.4 (−5.4, −1.6)9983 (63)
IFIH1 (188)47.6 (44.6, 53.5)3.5 (2.3, 5.5)3.1 (0.8–14.5)−3.4 (−4.9, −1.6)147126 (67)
TT (70, 37)52.3 (41.2, 67.3)3.5 (2.2, 5.7)2.6 (0.8–10.4)−3.7 (−6.2, −1.3)5345 (64)
TC (90, 48)50.3 (44.8, 55.0)3.5 (2.4, 5.4)3.4 (1.0–12.3)−3.1 (−5.1, −0.7)7259 (66)
 CC (28, 15)40.1 (32.9, 51.8)2.9 (2.2, 4.9)4.3 (1.5–14.5)−3.7 (−5.3, 1.4)2222 (79)
INS (195)47.7 (44.6, 53.5)3.5 (2.3, 5.5)3.1 (0.8–14.5)−3.4 (−4.5, −1.6)153130 (67)
AA (148, 76)46.7 (42.7, 53.1)3.5 (2.3, 5.4)3.2 (0.8–14.5)−3.4 (−5.1, −1.1)115100 (67)
AT (41, 21)57.2 (43.7, 63.4)3.4 (2.1, 5.1)2.7 (1.0–11.3)−3.7 (−7.2, −1.2)3326 (63)
 TT (6, 3)50.7 (39.8, 90.0)5.6 (2.1, 6.0)6.1 (2.1–10.0)−1.3 (−18.3, 2.3)54 (67)
IKZF4 (189)47.4 (44.6, 53.5)3.5 (2.3, 5.5)3.1 (0.8–14.5)−3.4 (−5.0, −1.6)148129 (68)
 CC (20, 10)48.5 (38.8, 76.9)3.1 (2.3, 5.4)3.1 (1.1–8.0)−5.0 (−18.9, 1.4)1415 (75)
AC (75, 40)53.9 (47.1, 63.3)3.5 (2.2, 5.6)3.4 (1.0–14.5)−1.6 (−4.4, −0.4)6042 (56)
AA (94, 50)43.8 (41.2, 47.4)3.5 (2.3, 5.2)2.9 (0.8–11.2)−4.0 (−5.4, −2.3)7468 (72)
ERBB3 (193)47.4 (44.1, 53.5)3.5 (2.3, 5.5)3.1 (0.8–14.5)−3.4 (−4.5, −1.6)151129 (67)
 AA (19, 10)46.0 (38.6, 98.0)3.0 (2.3, 5.4)3.0 (1.0–8.0)−3.3 (−18.9, 1.6)1313 (68)
CA (75, 39)53.5 (47.7, 62.8)3.5 (2.4, 5.6)3.5 (1.0–14.5)−1.9 (−6.2, −0.6)6146 (61)
CC (99, 51)43.9 (41.6, 51.3)3.5 (2.3, 5.5)2.7 (0.8–11.2)−3.7 (−5.3, −2.3)7770 (71)
CTSH (193)47.3 (44.1, 53.5)3.5 (2.3, 5.5)3.1 (0.8–14.5)−3.4 (−4.5, 1.6)151129 (67)
CC (75, 39)47.0 (39.0, 53.9)3.5 (2.4, 5.8)2.5 (1.0–8.0)−3.7 (−5.3, −1.1)5148 (64)
CT (87, 45)47.0 (44.6, 60.2)3.4 (2.3, 5.4)3.1 (0.8–12.3)−4.1 (−6.9, −1.7)7462 (71)
 TT (31, 16)50 (39.8, 71.8)3.5 (2.2, 5.0)4.1 (1.0–14.5)−1.2 (−3.7, 2.3)2619 (61)
PTPN2 (192)47.6 (44.6, 53.5)3.5 (2.3, 5.5)3.1 (0.8–14.5)−3.4 (−4.9, −1.6)150128 (67)
 CC (3, 1)28.1 (26.2, 87.4)2.8 (2.5, 4.4)3.0 (2.1–4.0)−5.5 (−5.8, −5.3)23 (100)
GC (53, 28)55.1 (46.8, 66.2)3.5 (2.3, 6.5)3.2 (1.0–12.3)−1.3 (−6.9, −0.2)4236 (68)
GG (136, 71)45.5 (42.7, 51.8)3.4 (2.2, 5.1)3.1 (0.8–14.5)−3.4 (−5.0, −1.7)10689 (65)
FUT2 (169)51.0 (46.0, 54.2)3.5 (2.3, 5.5)3.1 (0.8–14.5)−3.0 (−4.4, −1.2)131109 (64)
 AA (29, 17)53.1 (40.3, 76.5)3.5 (2.3, 5.8)3.0 (0.8–10.4)−4.4 (−8.4, −1.3)2521 (72)
GA (89, 53)56.1 (47.4, 63.9)3.6 (2.4, 5.7)2.8 (1.0–11.3)−2.8 (−5.3, −0.7)6456 (63)
GG (51, 30)43.1 (41.2, 51.0)3.5 (2.2, 4.9)3.9 (1.0–14.5)−1.4 (−3.7, 1.2)4232 (63)
Class I HLA alleles
A*24 (183)47.7 (44.6, 53.5)3.5 (2.3, 5.5)3.1 (0.8–14.5)−3.4 (−5.0, −1.7)145122 (67)
  Present (32, 17)41.1 (30.6, 47.4)3.1 (2.1, 4.4)2.3 (1.0–3.4)−5.1 (−8.5, −3.3)2627 (84)
  Absent (151, 83)52.2 (46.5, 57.1)3.5 (2.4, 5.7)3.4 (0.8–14.5)−2.6 (−4.5, −1.0)11995 (63)
B*39 (187)47.4 (44.6, 53.5)3.5 (2.3, 5.5)3.1 (0.8–14.5)−3.4 (−4.9, −1.6)148125 (67)
  Present (16, 9)36.2 (27.9, 53.5)3.3 (2.2, 4.0)2.6 (1.0–6.1)−3.9 (−8.5, 9.4)1210 (63)
   3901 (15, 8)32.0 (25.1, 53.5)3.3 (2.2, 3.5)3.0 (1.0–6.1)−4.1 (−8.5, 24.1)119 (60)
   3906 (1, 1)40.65.52.0−3.411 (100)
  Absent (171, 91)49.5 (44.8, 54.0)3.5 (2.3, 5.5)3.1 (0.8–14.5)−3.3 (−5.1, −1.5)136115 (67)
  • Major allele is marked in bold.

  • †Within each SNP, alleles associated with T1D risk are presented first.