Table 1

Demographics and comorbidities of lipodystrophy* and control patients from two unascertained clinical population databases

GHS all adult patients (age ≥18 years) (N = 1,361,924)GHS lipodystrophy cases, no HIV (age ≥18 years) (N = 99)OR (95% CI)MarketScan database, all adult patients (age ≥18 years) (N = 85,688,196)MarketScan database, lipodystrophy cases, no HIV (age ≥18 years) (N = 4,029)OR (95% CI)
Age (years)
 Mean (SD)51.32 (20.67)54.56 (15.57)45.26 (17.11)52.24 (13.72)
 Median50.954.84553
Sex
 Male633,536 (46.51)20 (20.2)41,282,911 (48.18)921 (22.86)
 Female728,388 (53.48)79 (79.8)44,405,285 (51.82)3,108 (77.14)
Hyperlipidemia1
 No1,052,782 (77.30)57 (57.57)2.51 (1.68–3.73) (P = 2.79 × 10−6)66,037,692 (77.07)501 (12.43)23.66 (21.5–25.9) (P < 1 × 10−12)
 Yes309,142 (22.69)42 (42.42)19,650,504 (22.93)3,528 (87.57)
Type 2 diabetes2
 No1,234,278 (90.62)78 (78.78)2.60 (1.60–4.21) (P = 5.3 × 10−5)78,301,315 (91.38)2,665 (66.15)5.42 (5.08–5.79) (P < 1 × 10−12)
 Yes127,646 (9.37)21 (21.21)7,386,881 (8.62)1,364 (33.85)
Hypertension3
 No1,034,366 (75.94)63 (63.63)1.80 (1.19–2.71) (P = 4.15 × 10−3)66,713,916 (77.86)1,808 (44.87)4.32 (4.05–4.59) (P < 1 × 10−12)
 Yes327,558 (24.05)36 (36.36)18,974,280 (22.14)2,221 (55.13)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver4
 No1,328,261 (97.52)90 (90.9)3.94 (1.98–7.83) (P = 2.21 × 10−5)84,054,976 (98.09)3,572 (88.66)6.58 (5.97–7.25) (P < 1 × 10−12)
 Yes33,663 (2.47)9 (9.09)1,633,220 (1.91)457 (11.34)
Medication use
 HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor272,332 (19.99)34 (34.34)2.09 (1.38–3.16) (P = 3.58 × 10−4)9,472,308 (11.05)1,050 (26.06)2.83 (2.64–3.04) (P < 1 × 10−12)
 Metformin96,561 (7.09)21 (21.21)3.52 (2.17–5.71) (P = 4.37 × 10−8)3,401,863 (3.97)619 (15.36)4.39 (4.03–4.78) (P < 1 × 10−12)
 Insulin91,599 (6.72)22 (22.22)3.96 (3.46–6.36) (P = 7.44 × 10−10)1,396,592 (1.63)383 (9.51)6.34 (5.70–7.04) (P < 1 × 10−12)
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • * Lipodystrophy is defined as having one inpatient or two outpatient diagnosis codes of ICD-9-272.6/ICD-10 E88.1.

  • 1 Hyperlipidemia is defined as having at least one diagnosis code of ICD-9 272/ICD-10 E78;

  • 2 diabetes is defined as having at least one diagnosis code of ICD-9 250/ICD-10 E11;

  • 3 hypertension is defined as having at least one diagnosis code of ICD-9 401/ICD-10 I10;

  • 4 nonalcoholic fatty liver is defined as having at least one diagnosis code of ICD-9 571.8/ICD-10 K75.8 and K76.