Table 2

GADA-first or IAA-first precursory biomarkers per age point regardless of time to seroconversion

Time after birthMetaboliteAutoantibodyOdds ratioLower 95%Upper 95%P value
3 monthsLactuloseGADA-first0.78990.65560.95160.0131
DHAAGADA-first1.33511.03061.72940.0286
EthanolamineGADA-first1.2231.01831.46890.0313
MethanolphosphateGADA-first0.6740.4610.98540.0418
Lauric acidIAA-first0.60020.44390.81160.0009
DiglycerolIAA-first0.55640.39000.79370.0012
DHAAIAA-first1.33601.09221.63410.0048
γ-aminobutyric acidIAA-first1.33991.06841.68040.0113
Uric acidIAA-first1.40101.00131.96000.0491
6 monthsMethionineGADA-first0.54410.36950.80110.0020
ε caprolactamGADA-first0.57900.39510.84850.0051
DiglycerolGADA-first1.68531.11122.55610.0140
5-methoxytryptamineIAA-first0.71520.58130.880.0015
LactamideIAA-first1.23841.03091.48770.0223
Itaconic acidIAA-first1.41841.03851.93720.0280
9 months2,3-dihydroxybutanoic acid NISTGADA-first0.48500.30640.76780.0020
2-hydroxyglutaric acidGADA-first1.56441.11412.19660.0098
XylitolGADA-first0.61130.38350.97450.0386
Pelargonic acidIAA-first0.44890.25960.77620.0042
5-methoxytryptamineIAA-first1.23751.05231.45530.0100
1-monooleinIAA-first1.26021.05641.50330.0102
Threonic acidIAA-first1.79571.14242.82250.0112
UridineIAA-first1.56481.07942.26850.0181
12 monthsXyloseGADA-first0.76810.61430.96030.0206
Lactic acidIAA-first1.52101.12262.06070.0068
CystineIAA-first0.59120.38600.90570.0157
AlanineIAA-first0.64560.43710.95360.0279
15 monthsArachidonic acidGADA-first1.46071.08181.97240.0134
LevoglucosanIAA-first1.35301.05991.72710.0152
18 monthsLactoseGADA-first0.55410.33360.92040.0226
Benzoic acidIAA-first0.47860.25500.89830.0218
21 monthsHippuric acidGADA-first0.73810.58960.92390.0080
EthanolamineGADA-first0.80500.66890.96890.0218
24 monthsRiboseGADA-first1.84691.19232.86080.006
ε-caprolactamIAA-first2.89741.38046.08180.0049
3-hydroxybutyric acidIAA-first0.69480.52060.92720.0134
UracilIAA-first2.19451.01514.74430.0457
27 monthstrans-4-hydroxyprolineGADA-first0.30860.11750.81070.0170
Pyruvic acidGADA-first0.79140.63320.98910.0398
30 monthsProlineGADA-first0.06380.01440.28220.0003
PiperidoneGADA-first2.00261.32093.03620.0011
Lauric acidGADA-first0.27930.11400.68440.0053
Linoleic acidGADA-first0.48160.25790.89930.0218
33 monthsOctadecanolGADA-first4.92971.205620.15650.0264
  • NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology.