Table 2

Levels of GREMLIN 1 in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver (cohort ND/D/NAFLD)

VIS GREMLIN 1SC GREMLIN 1Liver GREMLIN 1
Serum adiponectin, ng/mL (4.5 ± 2.5)−0.31*−0.24*−0.31*
Liver fat, % (20.8 ± 13)0.48***0.40**0.25*
Serum FFA, mmol/L (0.6 ± 0.3)0.37**0.40**0.26*
Serum TG, mmol/L (184 ± 60.5)0.37**0.29*0.46**
Serum LDL-C, mmol/L (4.7 ± 1.6)0.23 (P = 0.065)0.28*0.17
Serum IL-6, pmol/L (3.9 ± 2.8)0.41**0.200.32**
Fasting serum insulin, pmol/L (204 ± 136)0.39**0.42**0.40**
NASH score steatosis0.24 (P = 0.099)0.25 (P = 0.075)0.41**
NASH score ballooning0.25 (P = 0.075)0.34*0.52**
NASH score inflammation0.110.32*0.33*
NASH score fibrosis0.24 (P = 0.098)0.220.39**
  • Data are R values or mean ± SD. FFA, free fatty acid; IL-6, interleukin-6; LDL-C, LDL cholesterol; SC, subcutaneous adipose tissue; VIS, visceral adipose tissue.

  • * P < 0.05;

  • ** P < 0.01;

  • *** P < 0.001.