Table 3

GADA-first or IAA-first precursory biomarkers per time point within 1 year before seroconversion

Months to IAMetaboliteAutoantibodyOdds ratioLower 95%Upper 95%P value
3 monthsPalmitoleic acidGADA-first1.22821.03741.45410.017
SalicylaldehydeGADA-first0.70850.52680.95290.0227
XyloseGADA-first0.76460.59050.99020.0419
LactamideIAA-first1.34931.10341.65010.0035
Indole-3-lactateIAA-first1.44031.06671.94480.0172
XyloseIAA-first1.19041.00951.40370.0382
6 monthsN-methylalanineGADA-first0.43130.23630.78740.0062
SalicylaldehydeGADA-first1.37961.03151.8450.0301
TagatoseIAA-first0.8440.72530.9820.0282
Tocopherol αIAA-first2.14711.26863.63380.0044
9 monthsSalicylaldehydeGADA-first1.39811.0481.86530.0227
PhosphateGADA-first2.10961.12973.93930.0191
2-ketoisovaleric acidIAA-first1.33081.05961.67140.014
12 monthsHexitolGADA-first0.50980.3320.78290.0021
AlanineGADA-first0.20940.07360.59580.0034
N-acetylmannosamineGADA-first0.48750.29080.81730.0064
PhosphoethanolamineGADA-first1.70591.15612.51710.0071
XyloseGADA-first1.42241.09441.84880.0084
2-ketoisocaproic acidGADA-first0.41030.20980.80250.0093
1-monooleinGADA-first1.36221.0691.7360.0125
1,2-dihydroxycylohexane NISTIAA-first1.3791.02621.85320.0331
LevoglucosanIAA-first1.24651.01391.53230.0365
  • NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology.