Table 1

Basic clinical characteristics of the cohort at diabetes diagnosis and comparison according to autoimmunity status

AllAb groupOnly IAA+ groupOther*P (comparing Ab and only IAA+ groups)
% (n)15356.2 (86)42.5 (65)4.8 (2)NA
Female, % (n)47.7 (73)53.5 (46)40 (26)50 (1)0.1
Age at diabetes diagnosis, months106 ± 68124 ± 7182 ± 56135 ± 16<0.001
Glycemia, mmol/L15.8 ± 9.414.6 ± 10.918.3 ± 6.59.4 ± 2.20.028
HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)8.2 ± 2.3 (66 ± 2)7.9 ± 2.9 (63 ± 9)9.1 ± 2.9 (76 ± 9)7.1 ± 0.8 (54 ± 1)0.98
C-peptide, pmol/L800 ± 2,1001,000 ± 2,600400 ± 400§1,0000.107
Ketosis, % (n)51.4 (74 of 144)44.6 (37 of 83)62.7 (37 of 59)00.033
OHA, % (n)3.9 (5 of 129)6.9 (5 of 72)00<0.001
Insulin, % (n)65.1 (84 of 129)47.2 (34 of 72)90.9 (50 of 55)0<0.001
Insulin dose, units/kg/day0.76 ± 0.460.7 ± 0.40.9 ± 0.50.135
Family history of diabetes, % (n)47.7 (73 of 153)55.8 (48 of 86)36.9 (24 of 65)50 (1 of 2)0.021
Variants found in MODY genes, % (n)27.5 (42 of 153)40.7 (35 of 86)9.2 (6 of 65)50 (1 of 2)<0.001
  • Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated. The 153 individuals selected for genetic analysis were divided into three groups according to their autoimmunity status (antibody negative, only IAA+, and GAD65+), and clinical characteristics were compared. Ab, antibody; OHA, oral hypoglycemic agents.

  • * One patient GAD65+ and one patient GAD65+ and IAA+.

  • †Valid data for 57 of 153 cases.

  • ‡Valid data for 37 of 86 cases.

  • §Valid data for 20 of 65 cases.

  • ‖Valid data for 1 of 2 cases.