Table 3

ORs for DPN and CAN per unit change in each baseline or time-dependent covariate in separate longitudinal GEE models, minimally adjusted for age and updated mean HbA1c

DPNCAN
*OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Design
 Treatment group (conventional vs. intensive)B1.05 (0.83, 1.32)0.70221.12 (0.91, 1.38)0.2883
 Cohort (secondary vs. primary)B2.07 (1.66, 2.57)<0.00011.81 (1.49, 2.21)<0.0001
Physical
 Sex (men vs. women)B1.51 (1.21, 1.88)0.00030.85 (0.70, 1.04)0.1164
 Adult (≥18 vs. <18 years)B1.05 (0.66, 1.67)0.82910.76 (0.50, 1.16)0.1997
 Height (per 5 cm)C1.21 (1.14, 1.28)<0.00010.96 (0.91, 1.01)0.1134
 Weight (per 5 kg)C1.09 (1.06, 1.13)<0.00011.02 (0.99, 1.05)0.1299
 Mean weight (per 5 kg)M1.12 (1.08, 1.17)<0.00011.02 (0.98, 1.06)0.2686
 BMI (per 1 kg/m2)C1.02 (1.00, 1.05)0.06121.03 (1.01, 1.04)0.0079
 Mean BMI (per 1 kg/m2)M1.04 (1.01, 1.07)0.00901.03 (1.01, 0.106)0.0174
Behavioral
 Cigarette smoker (yes vs. no)C0.98 (0.75, 1.29)0.89321.39 (1.10, 1.76)0.0057
 Occasional or regular alcohol use (yes vs. none)C1.14 (0.93, 1.41)0.21580.85 (0.72, 1.00)0.0462
 Moderate or strenuous activity (yes vs. sedentary)C1.08 (0.89, 1.31)0.44710.86 (0.74, 1.00)0.0543
Family history
 Hypertension (yes vs. no)B1.17 (0.94, 1.46)0.15141.25 (1.03, 1.53)0.0276
 Myocardial infarction (yes vs. no)B1.17 (0.94, 1.45)0.15030.97 (0.80, 1.19)0.7897
 Type 1 diabetes (yes vs. no)B1.15 (0.83, 1.57)0.40480.95 (0.71, 1.28)0.7468
 Type 2 diabetes (yes vs. no)B1.22 (0.87, 1.73)0.25441.22 (0.89, 1.66)0.2164
Blood pressure
 SBP (per 5 mmHg)C1.08 (1.04, 1.12)0.00031.09 (1.06, 1.13)<0.0001
 Mean SBP (per 5 mmHg)M1.17 (1.10, 1.24)<0.00011.24 (1.17, 1.30)<0.0001
 DBP (per 5 mmHg)C1.07 (1.01, 1.13)0.01841.05 (1.00, 1.09)0.0462
 Mean DBP (per 5 mmHg)M1.21 (1.11, 1.32)<0.00011.21 (1.11, 1.31)<0.0001
 Pulse pressure (per 5 mmHg)C1.07 (1.02, 1.12)0.00351.11 (1.07, 1.14)<0.0001
 Pulse rate (per 1 bpm)C1.01 (1.00, 1.02)0.00481.03 (1.03, 1.04)<0.0001
 Mean pulse rate (per 1 bpm)M1.03 (1.02, 1.04)<0.00011.07 (1.06, 1.09)<0.0001
 Hypertension (yes vs. no)C2.03 (1.56, 2.64)<0.00011.94 (1.61, 2.34)<0.0001
Medications
 ACE inhibitor use (yes vs. no)C1.54 (1.20, 1.97)0.00081.51 (1.25, 1.82)<0.0001
 ARB use (yes vs. no)C1.24 (0.87, 1.77)0.24381.45 (1.13, 1.87)0.0038
 β-Blocker use (yes vs. no)C2.88 (1.79, 4.64)<0.00012.77 (1.95, 3.92)<0.0001
 Calcium channel blocker use (yes vs. no)C1.41 (0.88, 2.26)0.15241.70 (1.21, 2.40)0.0022
 Lipid-lowering agent use (yes vs. no)C1.15 (0.89, 1.48)0.27401.36 (1.12, 1.65)0.0020
Lipids
 Total cholesterol (per 10 mg/dL)C0.98 (0.95, 1.01)0.16071.00 (0.98, 1.02)0.9612
 Mean total cholesterol (per 10 mg/dL)M1.02 (0.98, 1.05)0.43341.06 (1.02, 1.10)0.0027
 Triglycerides (per 20% increase mg/dL)C1.06 (1.02, 1.10)0.00541.07 (104, 1.10)<0.0001
 Mean triglycerides (per 20% increase mg/dL)M1.09 (1.04, 1.15)<0.00011.14 (1.09, 1.18)<0.0001
 HDL cholesterol (per 10 mg/dL)C0.89 (0.83, 0.93)0.00340.96 (0.91, 1.01)0.1113
 Mean HDL cholesterol (per 10 mg/dL)M0.88 (0.81, 0.96)0.00520.95 (0.88, 1.03)0.2238
 LDL cholesterol (per 10 mg/dL)C0.98 (0.95, 1.01)0.18040.99 (0.96, 1.02)0.4320
 Mean LDL cholesterol (per 10 mg/dL)M1.02 (0.98, 1.06)0.41371.04 (1.00, 1.08)0.0719
 Hyperlipidemia (yes vs. no)C1.02 (0.83, 1.26)0.85681.27 (1.08, 1.51)0.0052
History of diabetes
 Duration of type 1 diabetes (per 1 year)B1.11 (1.08, 1.13)<0.00011.09 (1.06, 1.12)<0.0001
 Stimulated C-peptide (per 1 nmol/L*100)
  Duration <5 yearsB0.99 (0.98, 1.00)0.13451.00 (0.98, 1.01)0.7650
  Duration ≥5 yearsB1.00 (0.96, 1.05)0.87260.98 (0.94, 1.02)0.3685
 Insulin dose (per 1 unit/kg/day)C1.19 (0.82, 1.73)0.37181.26 (0.99, 1.62)0.0648
 Mean insulin dose (per 1 unit/kg/day)M2.07 (1.25, 3.43)0.00461.88 (1.18, 3.00)0.0083
Kidney disease
 eGFR (per 5 mL/min/1.73 m2)C0.93 (0.90, 0.97)<0.00010.92 (0.90, 0.95)<0.0001
  eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (yes vs. no)C2.56 (1.36, 4.80)0.00345.95 (3.36, 10.52)<0.0001
  Any eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (yes vs. no)A2.44 (1.45, 4.10)0.00073.24 (2.12, 4.99)<0.0001
 AER (per 20% increase mg/24 h)C1.06 (1.04, 1.07)<0.00011.06 (1.04, 1.07)<0.0001
  Sustained AER ≥30 mg/24 h (yes vs. no)C2.45 (1.89, 3.17)<0.00012.36 (1.86, 3.00)<0.0001
  Any sustained AER ≥30 mg/24 h (yes vs. no)A2.50 (1.98, 3.15)<0.00012.87 (2.32, 3.53)<0.0001
  AER ≥300 mg/24 h (yes vs. no)C3.81 (2.42, 6.01)<0.00013.25 (2.17, 4.87)<0.0001
  Any AER ≥300 mg/24 h (yes vs. no)A4.02 (2.81, 5.75)<0.00013.30 (2.36, 4.59)<0.0001
Hypoglycemia
 Coma and/or seizure (yes vs. no)C1.09 (0.61, 1.97)0.76361.03 (0.73, 1.45)0.8697
 Requiring assistance (yes vs. no)C1.36 (0.96, 1.92)0.08371.13 (0.88, 1.45)0.3264
  • Data are based on 1,386 participants with at least two DPN assessments or 1,434 participants with at least two CAN assessments during DCCT/EDIC. ORs and P values were generated using GEE models, adjusting for age and updated mean HbA1c. Triglyceride and AER values were log transformed, and the ORs are presented per 20% increase in the covariate (1.2β). ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker.

  • * B, baseline value; C, current value; M, updated mean value; A, cumulative incidence (e.g., any use). Covariates classified as C, M, and A enter into the analyses as time-dependent covariates.