Table 1

DCCT baseline characteristics of participants according to the presence or absence of any DPN over the duration of the DCCT/EDIC study, through EDIC year 13/14

OverallNoYesPer unit changeOR (95% CI)P value
N1,386931455
Design
 Treatment group (% conventional)514857Conventional vs. intensive1.56 (1.26, 1.93)0.0001
 Cohort (% secondary)514561Secondary vs. primary1.90 (1.53, 2.36)<0.0001
Physical
 Sex (% men)524960Men vs. women1.51 (1.21, 1.88)0.0002
 Age (years)27 (22, 32)26 (21, 32)29 (24, 34)5 years1.30 (1.21, 1.41)<0.0001
 Adult (% ≥18 years)878491≥18 vs. <18 years1.83 (1.28, 2.63)0.0009
 Height (cm)171 (164, 179)170 (163, 177)174 (167, 182)5 cm1.20 (1.13, 1.27)<0.0001
 Weight men (kg)74 (67, 82)73 (66, 80)78 (70, 85)5 kg1.19 (1.11, 1.27)<0.0001
 Weight women (kg)62 (56, 69)61 (55, 68)64 (58, 70)5 kg1.20 (1.10, 1.32)<0.0001
 BMI men (kg/m2)24 (22, 25)23 (21, 25)24 (22, 26)1 kg/m21.08 (1.02, 1.14)0.0052
 BMI women (kg/m2)23 (21, 25)23 (21, 25)23 (22, 25)1 kg/m21.09 (1.03, 1.15)0.0021
Behavioral
 Cigarette smoker (%)181820Yes vs. no1.23 (0.94, 1.60)0.1358
 Occasional or regular alcohol use (%)222024Yes vs. none1.23 (0.95, 1.59)0.1107
 Moderate or strenuous activity (%)706874Yes vs. sedentary1.31 (1.03, 1.66)0.0264
Family history
 Hypertension (%)565458Yes vs. no1.16 (0.93, 1.44)0.1872
 Myocardial infarction (%)494752Yes vs. no1.18 (0.95, 1.46)0.1366
 Type 1 diabetes (%)141415Yes vs. no1.22 (0.90, 1.66)0.2041
 Type 2 diabetes (%)9812Yes vs. no1.44 (1.04, 2.00)0.0292
Blood pressure
 SBP (mmHg)114 (106, 122)112 (106, 120)116 (110,124)5 mmHg1.11 (1.06, 1.17)<0.0001
 DBP (mmHg)72 (68, 80)70 (66, 78)76 (68, 80)5 mmHg1.16 (1.09, 1.24)<0.0001
 Pulse pressure (mmHg)40 (34, 48)40 (34, 48)40 (36, 48)5 mmHg1.03 (0.98, 1.09)0.2658
 Pulse rate (bpm)76 (68, 84)76 (68, 82)76 (70, 84)1 bpm1.02 (1.01, 1.03)<0.0001
Lipids
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)174 (152, 196)172 (152, 194)176 (155, 202)10 mg/dL1.05 (1.02, 1.08)0.0038
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)70 (55, 93)69 (54, 92)73 (57, 98)10 mg/dL1.03 (1.01, 1.05)0.0032
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)49 (42, 57)50 (42, 58)47 (41, 56)10 mg/dL0.92 (0.84, 1.00)0.0614
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)106 (90, 127)104 (89, 125)110 (92, 131)10 mg/dL1.06 (1.02, 1.10)0.0011
History of diabetes
 Duration of type 1 diabetes (years)4 (2, 9)4 (2, 8)6 (3, 10)1 year1.08 (1.06, 1.11)<0.0001
 Stimulated C-peptide (nmol/L⋅100)
  Duration <5 years12 (4, 25)12 (4, 26)13 (4, 24)1 year0.99 (0.98, 1.01)0.3172
  Duration ≥5 years3 (3, 4)3 (3, 4)3 (3, 3)1 year1.01 (0.97, 1.05)0.6864
 Insulin dose (units/kg/day)0.64 (0.50, 0.80)0.64 (0.50, 0.81)0.63 (0.49, 0.77)1 unit/kg/day0.88 (0.57, 1.35)0.5552
 HbA1c (%)8.80 (7.84, 10.08)8.63 (7.70, 9.74)9.20 (8.23, 10.60)1%1.31 (1.22, 1.40)<0.0001
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)72.7 (62.2, 86.7)70.8 (60.7, 83.0)77.1 (66.5, 92.4)1 mmol/mol1.31 (1.22, 1.40)<0.0001
  • Data are based on 1,386 participants with at least two DPN assessments during DCCT/EDIC. Medians (first quartile, third quartile) or % are presented. ORs and P values were generated using GEE models with no adjustment for other factors.