Table 4

Final multivariable GEE models for DPN and CAN as a function of baseline and time-dependent covariates

DPNOR (95% CI)Z-test valueP value
Mean HbA1c (per 1%)1.63 (1.51, 1.77)11.81<0.0001
Age (per 5 years)1.42 (1.30, 1.55)8.05<0.0001
Duration of type 1 diabetes (per 1 year)1.10 (1.08, 1.13)7.66<0.0001
Height (per 5 cm)1.27 (1.19, 1.35)7.31<0.0001
Any AER ≥300 mg/24 h (yes vs. no)2.44 (1.60, 3.73)4.12<0.0001
Mean pulse rate (per 1 bpm)1.03 (1.01, 1.04)3.92<0.0001
β-Blocker use (yes vs. no)2.50 (1.47, 4.24)3.380.0007
Any sustained AER ≥30 mg/24 h (yes vs. no)1.48 (1.12, 1.96)2.760.0058
CANOR (95% CI)Z-test valueP value
Age (per 5 years)1.50 (1.39, 1.62)10.43<0.0001
Mean HbA1c (per 1%)1.27 (1.17, 1.37)6.04<0.0001
Any sustained AER ≥30 mg/24 h (yes vs. no)1.95 (1.57, 2.43)5.96<0.0001
Duration of type 1 diabetes (per 1 year)1.07 (1.05, 1.10)5.73<0.0001
Mean pulse rate (per 1 bpm)1.04 (1.02, 1.06)4.62<0.0001
Mean SBP (per 5 mmHg)1.11 (1.05, 1.17)3.750.0002
β-Blocker use (yes vs. no)2.01 (1.37, 2.93)3.600.0003
eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (yes vs. no)2.88 (1.59, 5.19)3.510.0005
Pulse rate (per 1 bpm)1.02 (1.00, 1.03)2.840.0045
Cigarette smoker (yes vs. no)1.31 (1.04, 1.66)2.280.0226
  • Data are based on 1,386 participants with at least two DPN assessments or 1,434 participants with at least two CAN assessments during DCCT/EDIC. Odds ratios and P values were generated using GEE models. Covariates are listed in the order of significance as indicated by the Z-test value.