Table 2

DCCT baseline characteristics of participants according to the presence or absence of any CAN over the course of the DCCT/EDIC study, through EDIC year 16/17

OverallNoYesPer unit changeOR (95% CI)P value
N1,434803631
Design
 Treatment group (% conventional)514953Conventional vs. intensive1.36 (1.11, 1.66)0.0025
 Cohort (% secondary)504457Secondary vs. primary1.72 (1.41, 2.10)<0.0001
Physical
 Sex (% men)535452Men vs. women0.92 (0.75, 1.13)0.4286
 Age (years)27 (22, 32)26 (21, 31)29 (23, 34)5 years1.39 (1.29, 1.50)<0.0001
 Adult (% ≥18 years)868391≥18 vs. <18 years2.03 (1.45, 2.85)<0.0001
 Height (cm)171 (164, 179)171 (164, 178)171 (164, 180)5 cm1.02 (0.97, 1.07)0.4951
 Weight men (kg)74 (67, 82)73 (66, 81)76 (69, 84)5 kg1.14 (1.07, 1.21)<0.0001
 Weight women (kg)62 (56, 69)61 (55, 68)63 (57, 69)5 kg1.09 (1.01, 1.18)0.0251
 BMI men (kg/m2)24 (22, 25)23 (21, 25)24 (22, 26)1 kg/m21.10 (1.04, 1.15)0.0004
 BMI women (kg/m2)23 (21, 25)23 (21, 25)23 (21, 25)1 kg/m21.07 (1.02, 1.12)0.0107
Behavioral
 Cigarette smoker (%)181621Yes vs. no1.77 (1.38, 2.28)<0.0001
 Occasional or regular alcohol use (%)221924Yes vs. none1.31 (1.03, 1.65)0.0261
 Moderate or strenuous activity (%)706773Yes vs. sedentary1.23 (0.98, 1.53)0.0698
Family history
 Hypertension (%)565558Yes vs. no1.22 (1.00, 1.50)0.0528
 Myocardial infarction (%)494949Yes vs. no1.00 (0.81, 1.22)0.9666
 Type 1 diabetes (%)141415Yes vs. no1.07 (0.80, 1.43)0.6297
 Type 2 diabetes (%)9811Yes vs. no1.54 (1.12, 2.11)0.0073
Blood pressure
 SBP (mmHg)114 (106, 122)112 (106, 120)116 (108, 122)5 mmHg1.07 (1.03, 1.12)0.0021
 DBP (mmHg)72 (68, 80)72 (66, 80)74 (68, 80)5 mmHg1.13 (1.07, 1.20)<0.0001
 Pulse pressure (mmHg)40 (34, 48)40 (35, 48)40 (34, 48)5 mmHg1.00 (0.95, 1.05)0.9673
 Pulse rate (bpm)76 (68, 84)74 (68, 80)78 (72, 84)1 bpm1.03 (1.02, 1.04)<0.0001
Lipids
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)174 (152, 196)171 (150, 195)177 (156, 201)10 mg/dL1.09 (1.06, 1.12)<0.0001
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)70 (55, 94)68 (54, 90)72 (56, 98)10 mg/dL1.04 (1.02, 1.06)0.0002
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)49 (42, 58)50 (42, 58)48 (42, 57)10 mg/dL0.99 (0.91, 1.07)0.7660
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)107 (91, 127)104 (88, 125)110 (92, 130)10 mg/dL1.10 (1.06, 1.13)<0.0001
History of diabetes
 Duration of type 1 diabetes (years)4 (2, 9)4 (2, 8)5 (2, 10)1 year1.07 (1.05, 1.10)<0.0001
 Stimulated C-peptide (nmol/L⋅100)
  Duration <5 years12 (4, 25)12 (4, 24)13 (5, 27)1 year1.00 (0.99, 1.01)0.4487
  Duration ≥5 years3 (3, 4)3 (3, 4)3 (3,3)1 year0.99 (0.95, 1.03)0.6122
 Insulin dose (units/kg/day)0.64 (0.50, 0.80)0.65 (0.50, 0.82)0.63 (0.50, 0.79)1 unit/kg/day0.79 (0.52, 1.20)0.2679
 HbA1c (%)8.80 (7.82, 10.10)8.64 (7.70, 9.81)9.00 (8.01, 10.30)1%1.25 (1.18, 1.33)<0.0001
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)72.7 (62.0, 86.9)70.9 (60.7, 83.7)74.9 (64.7, 89.1)1 mmol/mol1.25 (1.18, 1.33)<0.0001
  • Data are based on 1,434 participants with at least two CAN assessments during DCCT/EDIC. Medians (first quartile, third quartile) or % are presented. ORs and P values were generated using GEE models with no adjustment for other factors.