Table 1

Participant characteristics

CohortMen/womenAge (% or years)BMI (kg/m2)Glucose (mmol/L)C-peptide (nmol/L)TAG (mmol/L)HDL-C (mmol/L)Figures
HUSK
 Normoglycemia1,923/2,61447.2*25.2 (4.7)5.0 (0.8)N/A1.45 (0.89)1.33 (0.50)Fig. 1A and B and Supplementary Fig. 1A
 Hyperglycemia122/8262.2*26.4 (4.8)7.5 (0.9)N/A1.86 (1.14)1.20 (0.44)Fig. 1A and B and Supplementary Fig. 1A
 Type 2 diabetes110/9182.6*27.2 (5.6)8.9 (5.3)N/A2.11 (1.54)1.12 (0.45)Fig. 1A and B and Supplementary Fig. 1A
WNOB-1
 BMI 18–57 kg/m245/4044 (20.5)34.7 (16.4)5.4 (0.7)0.90 (0.64)1.21 (0.71)1.10 (0.45)Fig. 2A and B
 Pre11/3542.5 (10.3)40.7 (6.2)5.4 (1.3)1.18 (0.52)1.35 (0.64)0.91 (0.34)Fig. 2A–C and Supplementary Fig. 1B
 Post 1 year11/3543.5 (10.3)27.6 (7.1)4.7 (0.4)0.58 (0.32)1.00 (0.64)1.22 (0.36)Fig. 2C and Supplementary Fig. 1B
WNOB-2
 Pre12/3340.3 (15.5)42.9 (4.0)5.4 (0.9)1.21 (0.68)1.40 (1.01)1.10 (0.30)Fig. 2D and Supplementary Fig. 1C
 Post 1 week12/3340.3 (15.5)N/A5.0 (0.6)1.05 (0.58)1.62 (0.50)0.80 (0.30)Fig. 2D and Supplementary Fig. 1C
 Post 1 year5/1040.9 (15.8)28.3 (5.0)4.7 (0.4)0.53 (0.19)#0.87 (0.57)#1.14 (0.18)#Fig. 2D and Supplementary Fig. 1C
  • Data are median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated. For medications, see research design and methods.

  • N/A, not available; Post 1 week, 1 week after bariatric surgery; Post 1 year, 1 year after bariatric surgery/after profound fat loss; Pre, before bariatric surgery.

  • * Percentage of participants in oldest age-group. Age-groups in HUSK: 46–47 years (n = 2,510 in total) and 70–72 years (n = 2,432 in total).

  • # Data available for four patients only.