Table 3

Glucose, C-peptide, C-peptide/glucose, and glucagon

InterventionPLA+NaClPLA+GIPPLA+GLP-1SU+NaClSU+GIPSU+GLP-1Interaction P value
Plasma glucose
HNF1A mutation carriers
  Baseline (mmol/L)8.6 ± 1.18.9 ± 1.08.6 ± 1.08.9 ± 1.08.9 ± 1.18.7 ± 1.1
  AUC0–120 min (mol/L × min)1.28 ± 0.151.33 ± 0.151.28 ± 0.151.34 ± 0.161.31 ± 0.161.28 ± 0.16
  PG/FPG AUC0–120 (min−1)150 ± 1149 ± 1149 ± 1149 ± 1147 ± 1147 ± 1
 Control subjects without diabetes
  Baseline (mmol/L)4.8 ±0.15.0 ± 0.14.9 ± 0.15.0 ± 0.15.0 ± 0.15.0 ± 0.1
  AUC0–120 min (mol/L × min)0.72 ± 0.020.75 ± 0.020.73 ± 0.020.75 ± 0.020.73 ± 0.010.74 ± 0.01
  PG/FPG AUC0–120 min (min)149 ± 1149 ± 1149 ± 1150 ± 1148 ± 1148 ± 1
Glucose infused
HNF1A mutation carriers
  Time 0–60 min (g)3.6 ± 1.05.7 ± 1.46.2 ± 1.06.5 ± 1.39.7 ± 1.8*9.3 ± 1.5*0.6745
  Time 60–120 min (g)14 ± 1.016 ± 2.018 ± 1.619 ± 1.328 ± 2.7*§24 ± 2.2*§0.0144
  Time 0–120 min (g)18 ± 1.722 ± 3.224 ± 2.326 ± 2.137 ± 4.2*§33 ± 3.3*§0.0472
 Control subjects without diabetes
  Time 0–60 min (g)0.8 ± 0.64.6 ± 0.9*4.9 ± 0.8*3.7 ± 0.96.1 ± 1.3*9.3 ± 1.2*§0.1237
  Time 60–120 min (g)9.7 ± 1.920 ± 3.620 ± 4.417 ± 2.630 ± 5.3*39 ± 5.8*§0.0180
  Time 0–120 min (g)11 ± 2.325 ± 4.325 ± 5.021 ± 3.236 ± 6.3*48 ± 6.7*§0.0205
C-peptide
HNF1A mutation carriers
  Baseline (pmol/L)302 ± 14299 ± 21314 ± 23299 ± 24314 ± 18310 ± 19
  bsAUC0–60 min (nmol/L × min)0.7 ± 0.97.5 ± 1.75.8 ± 1.48.0 ± 2.419 ± 3.8*§18 ± 3.4*§0.1617
  bsAUC60–120 min (nmol/L × min)9.6 ± 1.620 ± 3.326 ± 3.1*21 ± 4.345 ± 6.5*46 ± 5.6*§0.0190
  bsAUC0–120 min (nmol/L × min)10 ± 2.128 ± 4.7*32 ± 4.0*29 ± 6.564 ± 10*§63 ± 8.6*§0.0294
 Control subjects without diabetes
  Baseline (pmol/L)358 ± 42415 ± 35370 ± 27394 ± 50372 ± 34426 ± 39
  bsAUC0–60 min (nmol/L × min)−2.7 ± 2.45.5 ± 2.25.1 ± 2.43.9 ± 1.812 ± 2.9*24 ± 3.9*§0.0233
  bsAUC60–120 min (nmol/L × min)17 ± 5.848 ± 6.760 ± 11*40 ± 7.780 ± 14*131 ± 17*§0.0097
  bsAUC0–120 min (nmol/L × min)14 ± 7.853 ± 8.265 ± 1343 ± 8.993 ± 16*156 ± 20*§0.0078
C-peptide/glucose
HNF1A mutation carriers
  Baseline (pmol/L)41 ± 6.440 ± 7.342 ± 6.336 ± 5.139 ± 6.142 ± 6.5
  bsAUC0–60 min (nmol/L × min)−0.0 ± 0.120.8 ± 0.2*0.7 ± 0.2*0.9 ± 0.32.5 ± 0.4*§2.2 ± 0.4*§0.0398
  bsAUC60–120 min (nmol/L × min)0.1 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.31.6 ± 0.3*1.0 ± 0.33.1 ± 0.5*3.3 ± 0.5*§0.0042
  bsAUC0–120 min (nmol/L × min)0.1 ± 0.21.8 ± 0.4*2.3 ± 0.5*2.0 ± 0.55.6 ± 0.9*§5.5 ± 0.8*§0.0077
 Control subjects without diabetes
  Baseline (pmol/L)75 ± 9.283 ± 6.875 ± 5.978 ± 8.575 ± 7.375 ± 7.0
  bsAUC0–60 min (nmol/L × min)−0.7 ± 0.521.2 ± 0.51.1 ± 0.50.8 ± 0.42.6 ± 0.6*5.0 ± 0.9*§0.0260
  bsAUC60–120 min (nmol/L × min)0.8 ± 0.94.7 ± 0.96.6 ± 1.63.5 ± 1.09.3 ± 1.9*16 ± 2.4*§0.0166
  bsAUC0–120 min (nmol/L × min)0.2 ± 0.15.8 ± 1.37.7 ± 2.14.4 ± 1.312 ± 2.4*21 ± 3.2*§0.0148
Glucagon
HNF1A mutation carriers
  Baseline (pmol/L)13 ± 112 ± 111 ± 111 ± 213 ± 112 ± 2
  bsAUC0–60 min (pmol/L × min)−306 ± 59−182 ± 59−381 ± 59−186 ± 59−152 ± 59−255 ± 590.5167
  bsAUC60–120 min (pmol/L × min)−463 ± 57−435 ± 57−488 ± 57−351 ± 60−353 ± 57−420 ± 570.9094
  bsAUC0–120 min (pmol/L × min)−770 ± 106−618 ± 106−869 ± 106−560 ± 111−505 ± 106−675 ± 1060.8320
 Control subjects without diabetes
  Baseline (pmol/L)8 ± 29 ± 29 ± 210 ± 28 ± 213 ± 2
  bsAUC0–60 min (nmol/L × min)−93 ± 76−163 ± 76−248 ± 76−148 ± 76−52.7 ± 76−321 ± 810.2472
  bsAUC60–120 min (nmol/L × min)−325 ± 100−388 ± 100−408 ± 100−374 ± 100−274 ± 100−538 ± 1050.2707
  bsAUC0–120 min (nmol/L × min)−419 ± 171−605 ± 177−655 ± 171−523 ± 171−325 ± 171−857 ± 1790.1979
  • Data are mean ± SEM. A significant interaction describes a supra-additive of combining SU+GIP and/or SU+GLP-1.

  • FPG, fasting plasma glucose; PG, plasma glucose; PLA, placebo.

  • Symbols show significant differences (P < 0.05) between interventions:

  • * significantly greater than PLA+NaCl;

  • significantly greater SU+NaCl;

  • significantly greater than PLA+GIP;

  • § significantly greater than PLA+GLP-1;

  • significantly greater than SU+GIP.