Table 2

Cross-sectional association between metabolites and lipids and baseline DR grade

Association to DR grade (MLR)Effect95% CIPPBH
Metabolites
 2,4-DHBA0.0970.058; 0.135<0.001<0.001
 Ribonic acid0.1090.049; 0.170<0.0010.017
 Ribitol0.0720.028; 0.1160.0010.032
 3,4-DHBA0.0590.022; 0.0970.0020.036
Lipids
 TG(50:2)−0.066−0.104; −0.028<0.0010.042
 TG(50:1)−0.074−0.118; −0.0300.0010.042
 PC(32:2)−0.085−0.140; −0.0290.0030.083
 LPC(16:1)−0.087−0.146; −0.0280.0040.084
 TG(14:0/16:0/18:1)−0.065−0.109; −0.0210.0040.084
 TG(50:3)−0.053−0.091; −0.0160.0060.092
 PC(32:1)−0.080−0.137; −0.0230.0060.092
Association to DR grade (ANCOVA)FPPBH
Metabolites
 Ribonic acid7.44<0.001<0.001
 2,4-DHBA6.58<0.0010.001
 Ribitol4.98<0.0010.013
 3,4-DHBA4.18<0.0010.041
Lipids
 TG(50:1)3.970.0030.223
 TG(50:2)3.550.0070.257
 TG(49:3)3.440.0090.257
 LPC(16:1)3.120.0150.354
 LPC(16:0)2.710.0300.544
 TG(52:2)2.620.0340.544
 TG(14:0/16:0/18:1)2.580.0360.544
 PC(32:1)2.440.0460.547
 TG(16:0/18:0/18:1)2.370.0520.547
 PC(32:2)2.290.0590.547
  • Presented in the top half are multivariate linear regression model effect sizes per increase in DR grade for each metabolite or lipid to baseline DR grade with 95% CI and crude and BH-adjusted P values. In the bottom half of the table are ANCOVA F values presented for each metabolite and lipid to baseline DR grade with crude and adjusted P values. All presented models include the following baseline covariates: age, sex, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, smoking, BMI, statin treatment, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and prescribed antihypertensive medication. MLR, multivariable linear regression.