Table 1

Baseline characteristics across DR stage

No DRMild NPDRModerate NPDRPDRPDR with fibrosisP
n (%)141 (21.8)90 (14.0)186 (28.8)121 (18.8)107 (16.6)
Men, n (%)69 (49.3)47 (52.2)120 (64.5)62 (51.7)60 (56.1)0.051
Age, years46.5 (15.1)54.9 (11.8)56.4 (10.7)59.1 (10.8)55.8 (10.9)<0.001
Diabetes duration, years16.8 (15.5)32.1 (16.1)33.1 (12.4)41.4 (10.8)41.3 (9.0)<0.001
Smokers, n (%)29 (20.6)17 (18.9)46 (24.7)20 (16.5)21 (19.6)0.495
BMI, kg/m224.7 (3.5)24.3 (3.7)25.8 (4.3)25.8 (3.8)26.8 (11.2)0.014
HbA1c, mmol/mol64.3 (14.7)61.7 (11.2)63.9 (11.3)66.0 (13.8)65.5 (11.4)0.130
HbA1c, %8.0 (1.3)7.8 (1.0)8.0 (1.0)8.2 (1.3)8.1 (1.1)0.130
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m295 (25)91 (23)89 (24)75 (27)64 (31)<0.001
UAER, mg/24 h12 (8–22)9 (6–24)15 (8–53)29 (9–122)49 (15–232)<0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg127 (16)129 (15)132 (16)134 (18)135 (20)0.001
Antihypertensive treatment, n (%)58 (41.4)49 (54.4)138 (74.2)109 (90.1)103 (96.3)<0.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L4.7 (0.8)4.7 (0.8)4.7 (0.9)4.7 (0.9)4.6 (0.9)0.673
Triglycerides, mmol/L0.9 (0.7–1.3)0.9 (0.7–1.1)1.0 (0.8–1.4)0.9 (0.7–1.3)1.0 (0.7–1.5)0.055
Statin treatment, n (%)54 (38.6)44 (48.9)113 (60.8)92 (76.0)81 (75.7)<0.001
  • Data are mean (SD) or median (IQR), unless indicated otherwise. P values were calculated using ANOVA and the χ2 test for continuous and categorical variables, respectively.