Table 2

Estimated differences from linear regression models in offspring lean mass and BMI z scores and their associated 95% CIs when comparing lifestyle intervention (n = 92) vs. control (n = 47) groups for subjects with available cord blood of the TOP-study

PhenotypeEstimated difference (95% CI)P value
Lean mass (g), birth126.55 (−4.52; 257.62)*0.058*
Lean mass (%), birth1.36 (−0.05; 2.77)*0.059*
Abd. lean mass (g), birth59.09 (10.53; 107.65)*0.017*
Abd. lean mass (%), birth0.88 (0.24; 1.53)*0.008*
Fat mass (g), birth51.26 (−19.93; 122.44)*0.157*
Fat mass (%), birth1.35 (−0.06; 2.76)*0.061*
Abd. fat mass (g), birth6.88 (−3.51; 17.26)*0.192*
Abd. fat mass (%), birth0.49 (−0.58; 1.57)*0.365*
BMI z score, birth10.15 (−0.14; 0.43)0.352
BMI z score, 9 months20.31 (−0.14; 0.76)0.315
BMI z score, 18 months30.54 (0.14; 0.93)§0.006§
BMI z score, 36 months40.30 (−0.13; 0.74)§0.169§
  • 1 Lifestyle intervention, n = 129; control, n = 71.

  • 2 Lifestyle intervention, n = 60; control, n = 39.

  • 3 Lifestyle intervention, n = 57;control, n = 36.

  • 4 Lifestyle intervention, n = 51; control, n = 28.

  • * Adjusted for maternal education level, maternal smoking during pregnancy (yes/no), GWG (in kilograms), prepregnancy BMI, parity (single/multi), GA (in weeks), and offspring sex.

  • Adjusted for maternal education level, maternal smoking during pregnancy (yes/no), GWG (in kilograms), prepregnancy BMI, parity (single/multi), and GA (in weeks).

  • Adjusted for maternal education level, maternal smoking during pregnancy (yes/no), GWG (in kilograms), prepregnancy BMI, parity (single/multi), GA (in weeks), breastfeeding partially and exclusively, and BMI z score at birth.

  • § Adjusted for maternal education level, maternal smoking during pregnancy (yes/no), GWG (in kilograms), prepregnancy BMI, parity (single/multi), breastfeeding partially and exclusively, and BMI z score at birth.