Table 1

Summary of demographic and genetic data for cross-sectional and longitudinal study subjects

AllCross-sectionalLongitudinal
Total N40138219
Age at sample collection, years19.5 ± 11.919.5 ± 11.920.4 ± 12.0
Age at onset, years12.0 ± 9.111.9 ± 9.213.1 ± 5.4
T1D duration, years7.5 ± 9.17.5 ± 9.07.2 ± 11.1
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Hispanic41 (10.2)41 (10.7)0 (0)
 Non-Hispanic329 (82)311 (81.4)18 (94.7)
 Not reported31 (7.7)30 (7.9)1 (5.3)
Sex, n (%)
 Female208 (51.9)198 (51.8)10 (52.6)
 Male193 (48.1)184 (48.2)9 (47.4)
HLA status, n (%)
 DR3/338 (9.5)35 (9.2)3 (15.8)
 DR3/4102 (25.4)97 (25.4)5 (26.3)
 DR3/X65 (16.2)63 (16.5)2 (10.5)
 DR4/427 (6.7)26 (6.8)1 (5.3)
 DR4/X112 (27.9)106 (27.7)6 (31.6)
 DRX/X57 (14.2)55 (14.4)2 (10.5)
GRS0.278 ± 0.0270.278 ± 0.0270.280 ± 0.023
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. All subjects were Caucasian (self-reported race) and of European descent (genetically imputed race). Of 401 subjects, 382 had one blood draw, 18 had two blood draws, and 1 had four blood draws. Notably, because all samples in this study were collected from subjects diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, GRS values are high compared with those in the general population without diabetes (3,4,22); hence, both the 80th and 20th GRS percentiles examined herein reflect “high genetic risk” for type 1 diabetes. T1D, type 1 diabetes.