Table 1

Key concepts

1. T1D is a progressive disease, with acceleration in the peri-diagnostic period. This phase provides a targeted—and individualized opportunity for therapeutic intervention.
2. Integration of immune biomarker data with β-cell secretion measurements offers a personalized alternative to current classification of disease status.
3. Immune characteristics that define an individual’s autoimmune response have distinct properties that invite targeted immune therapy.
4. Use of longitudinal insulin secretion and immune acceleration biomarkers offers opportunities for efficient clinical trial enrollment and randomization.
5. Alignment between biomarkers and specific therapy options targeting T- or B-cell compartments suggests strategies for improved induction therapy of T1D.
6. Rational combinations of therapeutic agents, informed by biomarker assessments, may be essential for avoiding disease recurrence after initial immune therapy.
7. Individualized “treat-to-target” methodologies, using immune biomarkers, can enable precision dosing that is likely to improve efficacy of multiple biologic agents in T1D.