Table 1

Parental and offspring baseline characteristics according to the lifestyle intervention and control groups for subjects with available cord blood of the TOP-study

Lifestyle interventionControlP value
Maternal characteristicsn = 135n = 73
 Maternal age at enrollment (years)*30.90 (4.30)31.40 (4.74)0.440
 Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)*34.19 (4.00)34.36 (3.98)0.763
 Maternal educational level, n (%)0.970
  Grammar school 10 years15 (11.1)6 (8.2)
  Secondary school 12 years16 (11.9)9 (12.3)
  Vocational training school13 (9.6)6 (8.2)
  Further education 1–2 years26 (19.3)12 (16.4)
  Tertiary education 3–4 years (Bachelor level)46 (34.1)29 (39.7)
  Advanced education (postgraduate)18 (13.3)10 (13.7)
  NA1 (0.7)1 (1.4)
 Smoking during pregnancy (yes/no), n (%)10 (7.4)3 (4.1)0.524
 Parity (single/multi), n (%)75 (55.6)39 (53.4)0.882
 Energy intake at enrollment, weeks 11–14 (kJ)§8,019 (2,784)7,540 (3,246)0.829
Paternal characteristicsn = 115n = 65
 BMI (kg/m2) at enrollment, weeks 11–14*27.39 (4.51)27.01 (4.52)0.585
Offspring characteristicsn = 135n = 73
 Sex, n (%)0.862
  Male69 (51.1)39 (53.4)
  Female66 (48.9)34 (46.6)
 GA (weeks)*40.17 (1.23)40.01 (1.31)0.393
 Weight (g), birth*3,724 (482)3,677 (513)0.515
 Weight (kg), 9 months*9.61 (1.03)9.38 (1.15)0.299
 Weight (kg), 18 months*11.86 (11.83)11.26 (10.27)0.014
 Weight (kg), 36 months*#15.30 (18.64)14.71 (12.97)0.141
 Length (cm), birth***52.50 (2.17)52.48 (2.24)0.958
 Length (cm), 9 months*73.14 (2.32)72.99 (1.97)0.740
 Length (cm), 18 months*††82.75 (2.87)82.55 (2.48)0.724
 Height (cm), 36 months*‡‡96.42 (4.21)95.95 (3.07)0.599
 Breastfeeding, exclusively (weeks)*§§10.98 (9.41)8.38 (10.07)0.163
 Breastfeeding, partially (weeks)*§§16.30 (11.05)14.88 (10.71)0.501
  • NA, not available.

  • * Mean (SD), two-sided Student t test.

  • Frequencies, χ2 test.

  • Median (interquartile range), two-sided Mann-Whitney U test.

  • § Lifestyle intervention, n = 133; control, n = 68.

  • Lifestyle intervention, n = 60; control, n = 39.

  • Lifestyle intervention, n = 58; control, n = 36.

  • # Lifestyle intervention, n = 51; control, n = 29.

  • ** Lifestyle intervention, n = 129; control, n = 71.

  • †† Lifestyle intervention, n = 57; control, n = 36.

  • ‡‡ Lifestyle intervention, n = 51; control, n = 28.

  • §§ Lifestyle intervention, n = 77; control, n = 42.