Table 1

Demographic characteristics of patients with COVID-19 by BMI groups

CharacteristicBMI groups^P#
Normal (n = 845)Underweight (n = 75)Overweight (n = 572)Obesity (n = 145)
Age, years, median (IQR)61.00 (51.00, 67.00)66.00 (53.50, 75.50)58.00 (50.00, 67.00)58.00 (49.75, 66.00)0.001
Male, n (%)369 (43.9)36 (48.0)335 (58.6)74 (51.0)<0.001
Smoking status, n (%)0.063
 Never/unknown643 (94.1)52 (86.7)412 (90.9)107 (93.0)
 Former/current40 (5.9)8 (13.3)41 (9.1)8 (7.0)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Any296 (35.0)31 (41.3)247 (43.2)68 (46.9)0.003
 None549 (65.0)44 (58.7)325 (56.8)77 (53.1)0.004
 1201 (23.8)22 (29.3)154 (26.9)38 (26.2)
 >195 (11.2)9 (12.0)93 (16.3)30 (20.7)
 Malignancy11 (1.3)5 (6.7)13 (2.3)0 (0.0)0.002
 Hypertension205 (24.3)14 (18.7)196 (34.3)58 (40.0)<0.001
 Coronary artery disease38 (4.5)6 (8.0)37 (6.5)9 (6.2)0.294
 Congestive heart failure8 (0.9)1 (1.3)7 (1.2)0 (0.0)0.594
 COPD18 (2.1)6 (8.0)19 (3.3)3 (2.1)0.022
 Chronic kidney disease6 (0.7)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0.130
 Chronic liver disease13 (1.5)2 (2.7)11 (1.9)6 (4.1)0.206
 Diabetes110 (13.0)10 (13.3)86 (15.0)25 (17.2)0.485
Symptoms on admission, n (%)
 Fever451 (53.4)33 (44.0)289 (50.5)81 (55.9)0.271
 Chills43 (5.1)1 (1.3)23 (4.0)2 (1.4)0.108
 Dry cough408 (48.3)27 (36.0)258 (45.1)67 (46.2)0.183
 Sore throat37 (4.4)5 (6.7)21 (3.7)6 (4.1)0.661
 Myalgia233 (27.6)19 (25.3)171 (29.9)39 (26.9)0.705
 Fatigue254 (30.1)18 (24.0)154 (26.9)45 (31.0)0.418
 Headache21 (2.5)5 (6.7)18 (3.1)10 (6.9)0.016
 Diarrhea62 (7.3)4 (5.3)49 (8.6)12 (8.3)0.705
 Dyspnea189 (22.4)14 (18.7)120 (21.0)32 (22.1)0.846
 RR, median (IQR)20.00 (19.00, 22.00)20.00 (20.00, 22.00)20.00 (19.00, 22.00)20.00 (19.75, 21.00)0.435
 SBP, mmHg, median (IQR)128.00 (118.00, 137.00)130.00 (117.50, 138.00)131.00 (120.00, 142.00)132.00 (120.00, 141.00)<0.001
 DBP, mmHg, median (IQR)80.00 (73.00, 87.00)76.50 (70.00, 85.75)83.00 (76.00, 90.00)80.00 (76.00, 90.00)<0.001
 FPG, mmol/L, median (IQR)4.90 (4.50, 5.67)4.76 (4.38, 5.41)5.00 (4.66, 5.88)5.19 (4.72, 6.55)<0.001
CT image, n (%)
 Ground-glass opacity247 (29.2)18 (24.0)157 (27.4)37 (25.5)0.624
 Bilateral pulmonary infiltration13 (1.5)1 (1.3)9 (1.6)2 (1.4)0.997
 Consolidation0.758
  Left lung26 (3.1)4 (5.3)11 (1.9)5 (3.4)
  Right lung35 (4.1)3 (4.0)22 (3.8)4 (2.8)
  Both lungs347 (41.1)33 (44.0)249 (43.5)57 (39.3)
  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; IQR, interquartile range; RR, respiratory rate; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

  • ^ BMI categories: underweight, BMI <18.5 kg/m2; normal weight, 18.5–23.9 kg/m2; overweight, 24.0–27.9 kg/m2; and obesity, ≥28 kg/m2.

  • # P value was calculated from Kruskal-Wallis test for nonnormally distributed continuous variables or from χ2 test or Fisher exact test for categorical variables.